KT_PRL_2004

Uniform northerners and diverse southerners

If we investigate the number of species and each population, some characteristic patterns will be observed universally in various ecosystems. Although vast areas of nature conservation will be impacted by the clarification of the mechanism of those "species abundance patterns (SAPs)", it is, nevertheless, one of the "unanswered questions in ecology" in the last century and has aroused much controversy. This paper gives the first comprehensive theory that analytically derives the SAPs based on a general population dynamics of various types of species and interspecies relationships, while only competition in a trophic level was considered in previous studies. Various SAPs in different regions and of different species composition are derived from a single parameter about productivity, explaining why an alpine or polar region has few species and the tropics has many. As the model has a general form, the result can impact studies on other biological complex networks in population genetics, game theory and gene expression with similar patterns.


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